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BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistance (MDR) and extensive-drug resistance (XDR) associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases in Gram-negative bacteria are global public health concerns. Data on circulating antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in Gram-negative bacteria and their correlation with MDR and ESBL phenotypes from Nepal is scarce. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed investigating the distribution of ESBL and carbapenemase genes and their potential association with ESBL and MDR phenotypes in E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp. and Acinetobacter spp. isolated in a major tertiary hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, between 2012 and 2018. RESULTS: During this period, the hospital isolated 719 E. coli, 532 Klebsiella spp., 520 Enterobacter spp. and 382 Acinetobacter spp.; 1955/2153 (90.1%) of isolates were MDR and half (1080/2153) were ESBL producers. Upon PCR amplification, blaTEM (1281/1771; 72%), blaCTXM-1 (930/1771; 53%) and blaCTXM-8 (419/1771; 24%) were the most prevalent ESBL genes in the enteric bacilli. BlaOXA and blaOXA-51 were the most common blaOXA family genes in the enteric bacilli (918/1771; 25%) and Acinetobacter spp. (218/382; 57%) respectively. Sixteen percent (342/2153) of all isolates and 20% (357/1771) of enteric bacilli harboured blaNDM-1 and blaKPC carbapenemase genes respectively. Of enteric bacilli, Enterobacter spp. was the most frequently positive for blaKPC gene (201/337; 60%). The presence of each blaCTX-M and blaOXA were significantly associated with non-susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins (OR 14.7, p 

Original publication




Journal article


Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob

Publication Date





Antimicrobial resistance, Carbapenemase, ESBL, ESKAPE, Gram-negative bacilli, Multi-drug resistance, Nepal, Acinetobacter, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Bacterial Proteins, Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial, Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Gram-Negative Bacteria, Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections, Humans, Klebsiella, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Nepal, Prevalence, Retrospective Studies, Tertiary Care Centers, beta-Lactamases