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Although licensed vaccines against influenza virus have been successful in reducing pathogen-mediated disease, they have been less effective at preventing viral infection of the airways and current seasonal updates to influenza vaccines do not always successfully accommodate viral drift. Most licensed influenza and recently licensed RSV vaccines are administered via the intramuscular route. Alternative immunisation strategies, such as intranasal vaccinations, and "prime-pull" regimens, may deliver a more sterilising form of protection against respiratory viruses. A bivalent ChAdOx1-based vaccine (ChAdOx1-NP + M1-RSVF) encoding conserved nucleoprotein and matrix 1 proteins from influenza A virus and a modified pre-fusion stabilised RSV A F protein, was designed, developed and tested in preclinical animal models. The aim was to induce broad, cross-protective tissue-resident T cells against heterotypic influenza viruses and neutralising antibodies against RSV in the respiratory mucosa and systemically. When administered via an intramuscular prime-intranasal boost (IM-IN) regimen in mice, superior protection was generated against challenge with either RSV A, Influenza A H3N2 or H1N1. These results support further clinical development of a pan influenza & RSV vaccine administered in a prime-pull regimen.

Original publication




Journal article


NPJ Vaccines

Publication Date