Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

There are few studies comparing proportion, frequency, mortality and mortality rate following antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections between tertiary-care hospitals (TCHs) and secondary-care hospitals (SCHs) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) to inform intervention strategies. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of an offline tool to generate AMR reports and data for a secondary data analysis. We conducted a secondary-data analysis on a retrospective, multicentre data of hospitalised patients in Thailand. Routinely collected microbiology and hospital admission data of 2012 to 2015, from 15 TCHs and 34 SCHs were analysed using the AMASS v2.0 ( We then compared the burden of AMR bloodstream infections (BSI) between those TCHs and SCHs. Of 19,665 patients with AMR BSI caused by pathogens under evaluation, 10,858 (55.2%) and 8,807 (44.8%) were classified as community-origin and hospital-origin BSI, respectively. The burden of AMR BSI was considerably different between TCHs and SCHs, particularly of hospital-origin AMR BSI. The frequencies of hospital-origin AMR BSI per 100,000 patient-days at risk in TCHs were about twice that in SCHs for most pathogens under evaluation (for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii [CRAB]: 18.6 vs. 7.0, incidence rate ratio 2.77; 95%CI 1.72-4.43, p<0.001; for carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa [CRPA]: 3.8 vs. 2.0, p = 0.0073; third-generation cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli [3GCREC]: 12.1 vs. 7.0, p<0.001; third-generation cephalosporin resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae [3GCRKP]: 12.2 vs. 5.4, p<0.001; carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae [CRKP]: 1.6 vs. 0.7, p = 0.045; and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]: 5.1 vs. 2.5, p = 0.0091). All-cause in-hospital mortality (%) following hospital-origin AMR BSI was not significantly different between TCHs and SCHs (all p>0.20). Due to the higher frequencies, all-cause in-hospital mortality rates following hospital-origin AMR BSI per 100,000 patient-days at risk were considerably higher in TCHs for most pathogens (for CRAB: 10.2 vs. 3.6,mortality rate ratio 2.77; 95%CI 1.71 to 4.48, p<0.001; CRPA: 1.6 vs. 0.8; p = 0.020; 3GCREC: 4.0 vs. 2.4, p = 0.009; 3GCRKP, 4.0 vs. 1.8, p<0.001; CRKP: 0.8 vs. 0.3, p = 0.042; and MRSA: 2.3 vs. 1.1, p = 0.023). In conclusion, the burden of AMR infections in some LMICs might differ by hospital type and size. In those countries, activities and resources for antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs might need to be tailored based on hospital setting. The frequency and in-hospital mortality rate of hospital-origin AMR BSI are important indicators and should be routinely measured to monitor the burden of AMR in every hospital with microbiology laboratories in LMICs.

Original publication




Journal article


PLoS One

Publication Date





Humans, Tertiary Care Centers, Retrospective Studies, Thailand, Bacteremia, Female, Male, Cross Infection, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Middle Aged, Aged, Adult, Hospital Mortality