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Historically, epidemiological investigation and surveillance for bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has relied on low-resolution isolate-based phenotypic analyses undertaken at local and national reference laboratories. Genomic sequencing has the potential to provide a far more high-resolution picture of AMR evolution and transmission, and is already beginning to revolutionise how public health surveillance networks monitor and tackle bacterial AMR. However, the routine integration of genomics in surveillance pipelines still has considerable barriers to overcome. In 2022, a workshop series and online consultation brought together international experts in AMR and pathogen genomics to assess the status of genomic applications for AMR surveillance in a range of settings. Here we focus on discussions around the use of genomics for public health and international AMR surveillance, noting the potential advantages of, and barriers to, implementation, and proposing recommendations from the working group to help to drive the adoption of genomics in public health AMR surveillance. These recommendations include the need to build capacity for genome sequencing and analysis, harmonising and standardising surveillance systems, developing equitable data sharing and governance frameworks, and strengthening interactions and relationships among stakeholders at multiple levels.

Original publication




Journal article


Lancet Microbe

Publication Date





e1047 - e1055


Humans, Public Health, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Genomics, Anti-Infective Agents, Bacterial Infections, Bacteria