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We assessed S-268019-b, a recombinant spike protein vaccine with a squalene-based adjuvant, for superiority in its immunogenicity over ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine among adults in Japan. In this multicenter, randomized, observer-blinded, phase 3 study, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-naïve participants (aged ≥ 18 years, without prior infection or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2) were randomized (1:1) to receive either S-268019-b or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 as two intramuscular injections given 28 days apart. Participants who provided consent for a booster administration received S-268019-b at Day 211. The primary endpoint was SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer on Day 57; the key secondary endpoint was the seroconversion rate for SARS-CoV-2 NAb titer on Day 57. Other endpoints included anti-SARS-CoV-2 S-protein immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody titer and safety. The demographic and baseline characteristics were generally comparable between S-268019-b (n = 611) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n = 610) groups. S-268019-b showed superior immunogenicity over ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, based on their geometric mean titers (GMTs) and GMT ratios of SARS-CoV-2 NAb on Day 57 by cytopathic effect assay (GMT [95% confidence interval {CI}] 19.92 [18.68, 21.23] versus 3.63 [3.41, 3.87]; GMT ratio [95% CI] 5.48 [5.01, 6.00], respectively; two-sided p-values 

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Adult, Aged, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Young Adult, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, COVID-19, COVID-19 Vaccines, East Asian People, Immunoglobulin G, Japan, Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus, Vaccines, Subunit, Vaccines, Synthetic